If we took a holiday it would be so nice

Conservative Prime Ministerial hopeful Jeremy Hunt caused a stir this week when he announced that, if elected, he would cancel all Civil Service holidays in August in order to make sure that preparations for a No-Deal Brexit were fully implemented. But can an employer simply just cancel holidays, especially if they have already been authorised and staff may have paid out for a trip away?

It may surprise you, but legally the answer is yes. In fact, in certain sectors (e.g. the NHS or emergency services) it’s not that uncommon – think for example of nurses and doctors having leave cancelled because of a winter flu epidemic.

However, it’s not quite that straightforward. Firstly, there are minimum periods of notice which must be given to cancel someone’s holidays. Unless you have a different written agreement, this is the same length of time as the period of the holiday. So someone who’d booked a fortnight’s leave must be given two weeks’ notice of cancellation.  As the new Prime Minister is only expected to take office a week before the beginning of August, and unless the Civil Service has specific rules, Mr Hunt would not have time to stop someone taking two weeks off at the beginning of August.

Secondly, you need to have a clear and urgent business reason. Preparing for an imminent ‘disorderly’ departure from the EU in 12 weeks would probably fit this description, as might things like a high level of staff sickness, or a major and unexpected change in business. If you don’t have a valid reason, however, you might find yourself facing a claim for constructive dismissal.

Thirdly, cancelling someone’s holiday is not likely to motivate or endear them to your business. So you need to balance the short-term issue against the longer-term impacts.

This post doesn’t cover the issue of whether you are liable to compensate people for losses caused by a cancellation. Most travel insurance policies wouldn’t cover cancellation by the employer, potentially leaving your staff significantly out of pocket. Not being a lawyer, I can’t say whether individuals would have grounds to make a civil claim for their loss (if you are a lawyer reading this please feel free to comment) but if they can you might find yourself exposed to significant liabilities.

So, overall, cancelling holidays is something that can be done, but it is an extreme decision to take and would require extreme circumstances, and a proper evaluation of the pros and cons, before I would suggest you do it. As with so much of employment law, the rule is

“Just because you can doesn’t mean you should”

via GIPHY

 

It was 20 years ago today…

That I launched Ariadne Associates to provide HR help and advice to small organisations. In that time, we’ve supported around 150 small businesses and charities – primarily in the North West of England but sometimes further afield. And to celebrate 20 years in business we’ve got some fantastic birthday deals 

1.  20% off our normal day rate for new and returning clients (subject to T&C below)

If there’s an HR issue that you wanted to tackle (for example setting up contracts, reviewing policies and procedures, making changes in your organisation, or needing some help with recruitment) then now is the time to do it. Visit our Services page for some ways we can help

For a limited time, our day rate will be reduced from £550 to £440 (for charities it will go from £495 to £395) To qualify, simply get in touch using the form at the bottom of this page, and we’ll get back to you to discuss how we can help.

2. Simon’s successful book on what small businesses need to know about Employment Issues for just £4.99 (and only £1.99 on Kindle)

Shortlisted for the CMI Management Book of the Year 2018, Happy Working Relationships has received numerous positive reviews as a plain English guide to Employment Law and People Management.

To order the paperback, visit https://ariadne-associates.co.uk/simons-book/

To order the Kindle version, visit https://www.amazon.co.uk/Happy-Working-Relationships-business-employment-ebook/dp/B071Y6C852

T&Cs

1. To qualify for 20% off our day rate, work must be agreed and committed by 31 July 2019 and must be completed and invoiced by 31 October 2019. Payment must be made within our normal timescales

2. 20% discount applies to a maximum of 3 days’ work.

3. Does not apply to existing clients or work already in progress

4. A returning client is an organisation that we’ve not worked with for over 12 months and which doesn’t currently receive our free employment law updates.

5. Book promotions run until 5th July 2019

lighted happy birthday candles

Photo by rawpixel.com on Pexels.com

 

MPs and Constructive Dismissal

MPs and Constructive Dismissal

One of the side products of this week’s decision by a group of Tory and Labour MPs to quit their parties and sit as an independent group was a somewhat heated discussion on parts of social media as to whether some of them, particularly Liverpool Wavertree MP Luciana Berger, would be able to claim constructive dismissal over their alleged treatment by their party organisations.

The first thing to say is that MPs are not employees of their political parties, so the simple answer is no. But as constructive dismissal is something that worries many small employers, it’s worth clarifying what it is – and isn’t.

Constructive dismissal is behaviour by the employer that is so awful that the employee can consider that they no longer have any trust or confidence in the organisation they work for and resigns as a consequence. It can be thought of in some respects as the opposite of gross misconduct (a situation where an employee commits an act that the employer can no longer have any trust or confidence in them, e.g. stealing, assault, leaking commercial secrets to a competitor etc).

It could be a single act by an employer, such as unilaterally reducing someone’s pay or demoting them to a lower grade. It might be humiliating someone in the presence of their colleagues and subordinates (this Gordon Ramsay clip is a good example – warning contains strong language). It can also be the final straw in a series of events which allows the person to conclude they can no longer work there.

It’s also worth remembering that an employer is responsible for the behaviour of their staff. So, if an organisation ignored or failed to deal with allegations of bullying, harassment, insulting or threatening behaviour against an individual employee by their colleagues, which then led to the individual resigning, they could be deemed to have constructively dismissed the employee.

Constructive dismissal isn’t a situation where an employer makes a decision that the employee is unhappy about (I’ve been asked questions about in the past about whether making someone move from a private to a shared office could be constructive dismissal for example – it wasn’t). And remember that if the person doesn’t resign there can be no constructive dismissal.

Constructive dismissal is also quite rare. There are, I think, two reasons for this. The first is that it takes a lot of courage, even in a very difficult situation, to simply walk out of a job.  The second is that to win a case at a tribunal, the onus is on the employee to show that the employer’s actions were such that they were justified in resigning, rather than a normal unfair dismissal where the onus is on the employer to show that its decision was fair and reasonable.  Even though the case is – like all employment matters – decided on the balance of probability (what the judge thinks is the most credible explanation of events) rather than the criminal standard of absolute proof, it still puts an additional hurdle in the way of a successful claim.

Based solely on the reports and social media postings I have seen, had she been an employee then Ms Berger certainly would have strong grounds for a claim. Whether she would have succeeded would have been up to a tribunal judge to decide. But it’s a useful reminder to employers that trying to ‘force’ someone  (or allowing colleagues to force them) out of an organisation can have far-reaching consequences.

Gordon Ramsay

Prepare for the Worst, Hope for the “not too bad”

This week’s parliamentary shenanigans have left the possibility of a “No Deal” Brexit very much on the cards – despite repeated statements from politicians of all sides that No Deal is not what they want.

Given that there is – at the time of writing – only two months to 29 March, the date on which the UK is due to leave, small businesses should be taking steps now to prepare for the worst-case scenario. In HR and employment terms some of the common queries I have had are:

1.       Can I still employ existing staff who come from the EU?

Yes, you can, although they will – after 29 March – need to apply to the Home Office for what is called ‘Settled Status’. Information on the process is available here.  You can continue to employ them while they go through the process. The official Government position – for what it is worth – is that unless there is a specific reason to deny settled status (e.g. criminal convictions) it will be granted.

If there is a deal, they will still have to apply for settled status but have up to 31 December 2020 to make their application.

People who have been in the UK for less than 5 years may only be allowed to apply for “Pre-Settled Status”. You will still be able to continue to employ them provided they have applied for,  and then been granted this.

2.      Can I recruit people from the EU after 29 March?

If there is a deal (with a transitional period) then yes. But if there’s no deal, then the situation is very unclear.

The worst-case situation is that new recruits from EU countries will need to meet the same or similar criteria to workers from other countries. This will mean applying for work visas (the new name for work permits) and registering your company as a sponsor organisation. This is a long-winded and convoluted procedure which many small firms have avoided in the past precisely for that reason. There are proposals to change the system, but they haven’t as yet been agreed or implemented.

If your business uses short-term ‘low skill’ labour (e.g. seasonal agricultural or hospitality staff) then there are proposals to implement a scheme of 12-month visas which will allow people to work in the UK temporarily. Again however it needs to be stressed that these are still only proposals.

Whatever system is put in place, employers will still be expected to carry out the normal “right to work” checks before employing someone.

3.     What if supplies are disrupted – can we lay staff off temporarily?

It depends – read my full post on this issue here.

4.    What about existing staff who need to travel to EU countries for work?

If there is a no-deal, the EU has said that people from the UK should not need a visa to travel to EU countries for short holidays or business trips. They will however need to apply for an ETIAS “visa waiver” document (similar to the ESTA scheme operated by the USA) every 3 years.

If you have business trips planned at the end of March or early April, there is the possibility of flight disruption.

If you have staff driving in Europe – whether this is for business trips or delivering freight –  you will have to make sure that all drivers carry a “Green Card” to show they have insurance. As this can take a month to process, you will need to apply by the end of February at the latest.

It’s also likely that in a no-deal situation, the EHIC card – which allows people to receive free health service treatment in any EU country – will no longer apply to UK citizens. So you will need to make sure that you have adequate health insurance for any employees travelling outside the UK.

The situation is extremely fluid at the moment. Although the information is correct at the time of publication, it may not be in a day or so. Keep an eye out for future posts. If you have a Brexit-related HR or employment question that isn’t covered here, please get in touch

The Luck of the Irish?

Here we are, only 5 months away from the Brexit date and, at the time of writing, no agreement on the arrangements for the UK to leave and the possibility of a “No Deal” Brexit still high. It’s small wonder that a number of my SME clients are considering options to set up operations in Ireland in order to continue trading seamlessly from April next year – especially when we read today that Brexit Secretary Dominic Raab is to order his civil servants to start issuing “No Deal” instructions to business.

But operating in a foreign country means following their employment laws. So how does Ireland differ from the UK?

The good news is that the Irish system – unlike many in the EU – is based on the same legal principles and processes as the UK. So it won’t look entirely unfamiliar to businesses and HR professionals. But there are some important differences, summarised below

Key Differences between UK and Irish Employment Law

Area of Law UK Ireland
Minimum Wage Different Levels based on age, and for apprentices Essentially an ‘under 18’ and ‘over 18’ rate although there are specific rates for those on training or in first two years of work after 18.
Working Time 20 minute Rest break entitlement after 6 hours working 15 minute rest break after 4.5 hours or 30 minutes after 6 hours
Pensions Auto enrolment No compulsory
Sick Pay SSP No compulsory
Holidays 5.6 weeks 4 weeks (with different  calculation rules for part-timers)
Zero Hours No guarantee (no work no pay) Guaranteed a minimum number of hours even if none worked (however, very few used – most employers would use “If and When” contracts – same as UK ‘casual’ – with no rights)
Agency Workers Rights only after 12 weeks with a company Rights from Day 1
Employment Status Employee, worker (limb b) or self-employed Employee or self-employed – no ‘intermediate’ worker status
Redundancy Payments Calculated on age and service Calculated on service only
Statutory Notice 1 week per complete year up to max of 12 Different ‘bands’ depending on service. Max 8 weeks after 15 years
Unfair dismissal Requires 2 years’ service Requires 1 years’ service
Working Time Can opt out of 48 hour max week No opt-out
Compensation No limit in discrimination or whistleblowing cases Limit of 2 years pay (discrimination) or 5 years pay (whistleblowing)
Settlement Agreements Can be used as an alternative to tribunal No such concept
Trade Union Right to recognition for collective bargain purposes if specific conditions met No statutory right to recognition
TUPE   More restricted definition of a transfer
Discrimination 9 protected characteristics 9 protected characteristics but some different to UK

·         Gender not Sex

·         Civil Status (= marital status in UK)

·         Family Status (parent of child under 18 – over 18 if disabled)

·         Member of Traveller Community

No: Gender reassignment, or pregnancy as a separate category (covered by gender)

Maternity Leave Pay Up to 52 weeks mat leave, 2 weeks after birth compulsory.

 

Employer must pay Statutory Maternity Pay if conditions are met

Up to 42 weeks mat leave.

Compulsory period of 2 weeks before and 4 weeks after birth.

 

No requirement on employer to pay, state maternity benefits available.

 

As with the UK, there is nothing to stop an employer offering above minimum conditions, but you can’t go below.

Obviously, this is only a general summary – more information is available from the Workplace Relations Commission which is broadly speaking the Irish equivalent of ACAS (although with more powers to inspect employers)

As well as recruiting staff in Ireland, some organisations are considering posting or seconding UK based staff there. At the moment, as both countries are EU members, this isn’t an issue. But in the event of a No Deal Brexit, will this change?

Yes. If the UK is not a member of the EU, or the broader EEA (which it won’t be in a No Deal situation) then UK nationals will be classed as third country nationals and will require a work permit. The good news is that Ireland has a considerably more relaxed approach than the UK – anyone from a third country can apply for a general employment permit unless they are in an excluded category of work (which can be found here).

So, relocation to Ireland is not too difficult in legal terms, although companies will need to think about plenty of other employment and non-employment issues. But – as per the Brexit secretary – now is the time to make your decision.

Important – this post is for general advice and information and neither Ariadne Associates or the author can be held liable if you take action based solely on the contents of it. You should seek professional advice, especially as the situation is changing daily.